Welcome. We're going to talk a little bit about Fluid Power Conduits. And at the end of this session, you should be able to, recognize some of the different types of fluid power conduits and describe the basic anatomy of a conduit. And, a little bit about the effect of fluid resistance on a conduit. Conduits carry pressurized fluid and one of the interesting things about fluid power is that, that ability to carry the fluid, can bend around corners. So, as you can see in this image of an excavator, towards the front of the image, you can see some of the hoses, the flexible hoses, that go from the main housing off to the boom, and then a little bit more into the distance; you can see some rigid pipes, that carry the fluid up around the boom. So now, let's take a little bit of a closer look at some hoses. So, here's a, standard hydraulic line, this is composed of a oil resistant inner tube and a steel reinforced braid, and then an outer coating. And I can go along and read some of the specifications of this line. Here we go. So, this one is a quarter inch or 6.3 millimeter bore. So that's the, the inside that the fluid runs down. And I can see that it's rated for 3,000 PSI or 21 mega Pascal. So, that's the amount of, pressurized fluid that you can put in it. The actual burst pressure of these, is typically 4 times the rated pressure that's written on the hose. And here's one that's a, a little bit bigger. So, this one. Is lets see, it's three eighths inch, inside diameter or 9.5 millimeter bore and it's rated to 3000 PSI so you'd use something like this, if you want to push a little bit more fluid through. Then down over here, we've got some smaller ones. This is a, example of one that you'd use on a, motorcycle, to run a motorcycle brake. And then, the last one I have on the table is something that, that's fairly recent, which is bicycles now have hydraulic brakes. And this is a example of a hydraulic brake line on a bicycle. This particular one has a Kevlar reinforcing. So, it's fairly lightweight, what you want for a bicycle. And the inside diameter, the passage way inside is, 2.2 millimeters, so very small, and the outside is about 5 millimeters. And this one can take, about 450 bars of pressure, or around 6500 PSI. So, quite a bit higher pressure than the ones here, and that's comes out that of that as smaller. The smaller the hose and generally the higher pressure that it can take. Unlike low resistance, electrical wires that carry electrical power, hydraulic conduits do offer significant resistance to flow and understanding that resistance is an important part of analyzing fluid power systems, and that's because of the, working fluid viscosity and we'll be talking more about viscosity in just a minute or two. And then there's additional losses due to the fittings, so let's say you want the fluid power to go to two places, so you use a T-fitting, like I have in my hand and clip on the hoses. So, here's one and then you want the, fluid to take a right angle turn, so now it can go out this hose. And so now, the fluid is taking this right angle turn through the fitting. Well, that's going to cause turbulence in the fitting, turbulence in the flow, and additional resistance. So, understanding the impact of this, you would be able to calculate the pressure losses, through the fitting is an important part of understanding fluid power systems, so we'll be talking about the fittings a little bit later as well. So, in this unit coming up, you'll be learning more about the viscosity of the oils, which is a big part of the resistance, you'll be learning the theory of the pressure drop in pipes and conduits, and how to calculate pipe and fitting losses.