Beyond the issue in the Bill of Rights, the fundamental issue for many anti-federalists is the issue of government power. And there's a fundamental question for these people: do we want a powerful nation with the ability to influence and control issues internationally, to have strong allies, to be a force in the world? That was certainly the view of a lot of people - George Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton. They saw the potential of having a great and powerful nation in the United States, maybe even an empire of liberty - the term starts to be used. Jefferson is very fond of that term. But there's an alternative vision, and it's Patrick Henry's vision of government, that he's not really interested in having a great and powerful government. Now, he certainly, he's a patriot. He wants to see the United States be successful but he would say that, What I really want is to be able to rest under my vine and fig tree, to use a Biblical allusion. That what people really want is to be able to be happy and comfortable at home with their families and to be able to make a good living, and we don't need a great and powerful empire. And he gives a speech about this, which is sometimes referred to as the Empire Speech. He recognizes these different visions, he recognized that an empire, even of liberty, could be very dangerous. He speaks this way: "You are not to inquire how your trade may be increased, nor how you are to become a great and powerful people, but how your liberties can be secured; for liberty ought to be the direct end of your government." He's decrying the lust for power, or even a powerful nation, much less an empire. Henry, in some ways, is at his most eloquent when he takes on this issue of government power. "Liberty, the greatest of all earthly blessings -- give us that precious jewel, and you may take every thing else!" And then he warns: "those nations who have gone in search of grandeur, power and splendor, have also fallen a sacrifice, and been the victims of their own folly. While they acquired those visionary blessings, they lost their freedom." Henry gives a very stern warning against a government which is too powerful and loses sight of its real objects. Second speech that I think is interesting, and it's the one I mentioned in the introduction. The convention is coming to a close. The proposal has been made, and people really aren't sure how Virginia's going to vote. Well, the proposal is made following something that had been done in Massachusetts, that, "What about this? What about this? We will approve the Constitution, but at the same time, we approve the Constitution, we'll indicate that we want amendments to be adopted after the Constitution is up and running. And those amendments will include a Bill of Rights and whatever other things need to be done." Now, Henry points out that this is very dangerous. You don't approve something in advance that you know is flawed and then say, We'll fix the flaws. He says, Let's fix the flaws now when this is up for debate. But the federalists do a good job of saying, No, that, we'll adopt the Constitution, recognizing that it may be imperfect, and we'll be able to fix the flaws. And, again, Henry says that's ridiculous. He apparently sees things slipping away, that this proposal of the federalists to have post-ratification amendments seems to be having an influence. He actually makes a fairly ugly speech, at that point, about slavery suggesting that, if Virginia ratifies the Constitution, slavery may, ultimately, be at risk. But then he goes into his final effort, and it's this Thunder Speech. And he's responding, in particular, to James Madison, and it's a little bit back to this powerful government issue. Madison had been talking about all the good things that could happen if we had a constitution and a national government with appropriate authority. And Henry gets up. "He tells you of the important blessings which he imagines will result to us and mankind in general, from the adoption of this system. I see the awful immensity of the dangers with which it is pregnant. I see it. I feel it. I see beings of a higher order anxious concerning our decision.... Our own happiness alone is not affected by the event. All nations are interested in the determination." And the thunderstorm comes up and, as I said, observers talk about "the spirits whom he called seemed to have come at his bidding... 'riding on the wings of the tempest, to seize upon the artillery of Heaven and, direct its fiercest thunders against the heads of his adversaries.'" Again, classic Henry, but it's his sort of final effort to try to prevent ratification of the U.S. Constitution. And we, of course, know that it fails. Henry, as I said, seems to sense that things are going against the anti-federalists, and that leads us to his third speech, and I think, in many respects, the most important. And it's one that we tend to ignore, and we're going to be talking about these concepts again in the fourth lecture. In some ways, it's a concession speech. June 25th, the day of ratification, is coming up; there's going to be a vote, and Henry stands up one last time, and he actually apologizes. He says, I know that I've been speaking more than anyone else and thank you for listening to me and my arguments, and a little bit quieter, Henry says, "If I shall be in the minority, I shall have those painful sensations which arise from a conviction of being overpowered in a good cause. Yet I will be a peaceable citizen. My head, my hand, and my heart shall be at liberty to retrieve the loss of liberty, and to remove the defects of that system in a constitutional way." We're going to see how important that limitation of Patrick Henry's was.