Do you feel like you have a handle on those direct and indirect approaches from the last videos? In this video we will move to a more specific part of these approaches. That is, making requests. Remember, when you make a request, you are asking for something. Everyday, businesses make hundreds of requests. Since direct language is easiest to understand, let's focus on direct requests first. So then, how do you think you make direct requests? You're right, it's the same technique used for direct approaches. You get right to the point, state your request and add details if necessary. Direct requests most commonly use imperative language. This is also called the command form. Here's how it is formed. You make a request as a statement, with, you, as the subject. Because, you, is implied, you, are able to drop, you, and delete it from the sentence. For example, You turn off the lights, easily becomes, Turn off the lights. Can you see how these types of requests would be used constantly in your company? Place the order by noon. Start the meeting at 9. Take these specs to the development team. Put your report on my desk by lunch. Open the window. Email me your thoughts. Though direct requests are strong and to the point, there is always room for saying, please. Please, put your report on my desk by lunch. Remember in our previous lesson where we discussed audience? When making requests, it's still important to consider your audience. We make direct requests often and naturally, but they are most used for coworkers we know well, friends, family, and team members. Bosses and managers may use these direct imperative requests when talking to employees as well. Do you have a bossy sister? I have four sisters and one is particularly bossy. She'll say things like, hand me that drink, give me a ride, or sit down now. After awhile of hearing this commanding, bossing language all the time, I get annoyed and a little tired of it, would you? That's why it's necessary to understand how to make indirect requests because they make requests softer. Indirect requests are formed with some helping words in English, we call modals. The modal may be an unfamiliar or fancy name, these types of words, are I'm sure you have seen them used many times in your English studies. Modals are words like may, can, must, should, would, could, ought to and be able to. There are also the negative models like, can't, couldn't, wouldn't, shouldn't and won't. Did that help? You do know about these types of words. Modals are known as mood changers. They change the feelings of the verbs in the sentence. By adding modals, the words can be softened. Bossy phrases, like, hand me that drink becomes, would you hand me that drink? Give me a ride becomes, can you give me a ride? Sit down, becomes, could you please sit down? This adds politeness to your words and softens your request. My bossy sister could've used some modals. Modals can be used in different ways. They can be used for expressing something necessary like must. Something as advice, like might or should. They're used for permission like can, could and would. And finally, modals are used for something probable when you aren't sure 100% of the results. This involves words like, may, might and could. In this video we will give some basics to understanding modals when making indirect requests. But it may take years of English study before you master them. So please don't get discouraged. One of the reasons this takes so long is that each modal has more than one meaning or use. Let's take a look at our manager Elizabeth, and HR specialist Gary. At the very end of their conversation, Elizabeth asks Gary, do you think with coaching these two would be good candidates for my team? Elizabeth could have said, are these two good candidates for my team? This is a perfectly good question in English. But it's a direct request. When she puts, would, in the sentence, it changes the mood. Adding, would, now gives a probable, most likely situation. With coaching, would, they be good candidates? The answer? Probably, but neither Gary nor Elizabeth are 100% sure. Let's take another example from Elizabeth and Gary. When Elizabeth is a little hesitant about having Jake Bright on her team, she asks Gary, how should I say this? Elizabeth is changing the mood of the sentence by politely asking Gary's permission, if it's okay to be more open and honest about Jake. Garry could have responded with a follow-up question, such as, could you be more specific about what you mean? A sentence like that would give probability an advise. When making a request, can, could, would, and may I are the most popular modals to use. Let's take a look at how the modal question is built. When asking questions, the modal will go at the beginning of the sentence. Usually it's followed by a subject and then a verb in the present tense. Let's take a look at these example sentences. Could+you+send me a copy of the meeting agenda? Would+it+be better to contact marketing or research and development? May+Jeff+print from your printer? Can+we+use your office while you're on vacation? Would+they+understand if I left early today for my appointment? Now you try to create these requests. So what the key takeaways from this lesson? Direct request, used the command imperative form. Indirect requests are more polite and use modals. When making a request or asking questions, the modals are often the first word of the sentence. Keep in mind modals have more than one meaning or use. So don't get discouraged when learning them. Take a look at our bonus readings for more specifics on modals. Stay tuned for our next lesson on summarizing, which will help you prepare for the end of course project. And, if you are taking the specialization, it will help you in the capstone. Thanks for watching English for Management and Leadership.