Welcome back. In this lecture, we will continue our exploration of medical terminology with a look at the male reproductive system. Here we go. Let's start with a look at the basic purpose of the male reproductive system. The main purpose of the male reproductive system is to allow for reproduction. It's nice that they named it for what it does. Thanks to anatomy system namers. As a reminder, the male reproductive system is charged with delivering the sperm to the egg. The 23 chromosomes from the sperm combined with the 23 chromosomes from the egg to make a whole new human. Amazing. Let's now have a look at the new word roots for the male reproductive system. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland in the male reproductive system. It produces fluid to nourish and protect sperm. The urethra actually runs through the center of the prostate due to its location between the bladder and the penis, much like the sprout running through the walnuts shown here. Prostato is the word root for prostate. The penis is part of the external genitalia and serves as a passage for both the urinary and reproductive systems for urine and sperm respectively. The word root for penis is balano. You can see it in words like balanorrhea. The roots orcho, orchio, orchido, testo, testiculo, all mean testicle or testis. The testicles are part of the external genitalia and serve as the sperm factories. They are housed external to the body to allow for a cooler environment, more hospitable to sperm. Finally, sperm are the male reproductive cells made and housed in the testis. Spermo, spermato, and spermi are all roots meaning sperm. Fun fact, sperm can live for up to five days in the female reproductive tract. Think about that for a minute. Now for a 10-second brain break. The following slides contain common complaints and observations regarding disorders of the male reproductive system. Sometimes the first symptom of an STD or sexually transmitted disease is balanorrhea. Discharge from the penis is not normal and should be brought to the attention of a physician. Delaying medical intervention is not a good idea. It's better to talk about it. They've seen it all. Priapism is the medical term for a persistent and painful erection. Perhaps you've heard the disclaimers on medications for erectile dysfunction drugs asking you to seek medical attention if your erection lasts for over four hours. They are referring to priapism and yes, you need to seek medical attention, and don't use any drug, particularly erectile dysfunction drugs recreationally. Orchialgia and orchiodynia both mean pain in the oranges, I mean the testes. This pain is terribly uncomfortable and debilitating and could be the result of a tumor, infection, or trauma, like getting hit by a baseball or the bat. Teaching your kids to play baseball can be hazardous to your health, or at least cause some serious orchialgia. Let's finish up with some common diagnoses and treatments for the urinary and male reproductive systems. In older age, it is common for the prostate to enlarge. This could be from prostate cancer or more commonly from benign prostate hyperplasia, or BPH for short. Symptoms of BPH include things like frequent urination, weak streams or starting and stopping, and an inability to completely empty the bladder. Remember, a portion of the urethra runs through the prostate, so as it enlarges, it constricts the flow of urine from the bladder. In other words, it takes your stream from this to this. But don't worry, BPH is treatable and benign, so that's just fine. Testosterone is the male sex hormone responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics and behaviors. However, it can also be used as a medication. Perhaps you've heard of Low T clinics. Low T refers to low levels of testosterone. They thought it can treat everything from weight gain to fatigue and loss muscle mass. Please remember that testosterone may be medically necessary for some conditions, but decreasing testosterone levels are normal as you age. Recall that BPH or benign prostate hyperplasia is an enlargement of the prostate that can compress the urethra. A transurethral resection of the prostate, or TURP, is a procedure to remove part or all of the prostate using the urethra for access. TURPs allow for a less invasive means of addressing the enlarged or diseased prostate and restore function. Super. Finally, a vasectomy is a procedure for removing part of the vas deferens or the tube that carries sperm from the testis into the ejaculation duct. Also a male sterilization procedure. The disruption in sperm transportation prevents fertilization without affecting the appearance of the genitalia, ejaculate, or sexual function. In fact, no one would know unless you told them. It's a safe, quick, and over 99 percent effective way of preventing pregnancy, as long as you do the follow-up visit to make sure your swimmers are in no show for the swim meet. Now you can even do the follow-up testing in the comfort and convenience of your own home. How much easier could it be? As with all good things, this lecture too must come to an end. Thanks for exploring introductory terms and word roots and some terms related to the male reproductive system with me. See you next time.