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1. The Roman Republic

Having thrown off the Etruscans in 509 BCE., Rome emerged as independent Latin community that quickly became known for its disciplined army and militaristic intentions. As the Romans expanded throughout the Mediterranean, it came into contact with various cultures, all who had an influence on the young power, especially Greek culture, art, and architecture. By the end of this period Rome may have grown to a million people. The first century BCE. was a time of amazing development in many fields of artistic endeavor, but it was also a time of civil unrest as soldiers became more loyal to their commanders than to the state. Leaders such as Sulla, Marius, Julius Caesar, Mark Antony and others took advantage of this turmoil, which culminated with the powerful influence of the decadent Egyptian charmer Cleopatra and the emergence of Octavian.

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