[MUSIC] This lesson is very important in trying to frame the project and in trying to gain some understanding of subsistence marketplaces. I will work through one example where you understand the need and the drivers, and the context elements. Why do we need to focus on the need and the drivers and the context? Well it goes back to what we discussed earlier, it's not enough to just understand a product or the need, it's hard enough to just understand the consumer. These are very unfamiliar context, and these are unfamiliar context where life circumstances are blended with day to day use products and day to day life. The social milieu is blended with the marketplace with the relationships that people have, and with the household needs, and so on. If you are designing a solution for me, in an advanced marketplace. And let's say you wanted to design a stove for me, you know what my kitchen looks like. You know in, what infrastructure I have. You know that I can count on electricity and so on. There are a number of things you can assume about the way I live and about the way I consume. As a result, you can just focus on that need and try to figure out how to make that gas stove, so that it's most effective for me. But here you're talking about an unfamiliar context where people are going to be using your product to serve a need in ways that you cannot anticipate and they cannot anticipate. So for example, there's going to be a stove. It's going to be on the floor of a hut, with people running around it, with children running around it. So how do you try to design for that context? Moreover, it's not enough if you just understand the household, and that particular need and the product that's going to sell that need. You have to understand how that household interacts with the neighborhood, and how that community interacts with each other. How do they cook in that community? What are the cultural values there? What are the different types of food that are cooked, and so on. So it's not enough to understand the consumer alone. You have to understand the consumer, you have to understand the community, you have to understand the larger context. So it's because of this unfamiliarity and because the day-to-day living is happening in a lot of uncertainty. And it's happening at a household level, at a community level, and all playing out in a larger context. You have to draw a picture out for yourself, as to how that need occurs, and what drives that need, and what's the larger context in which all of these drivers happen. That's why it's very important to take the time to understand the need, the drivers of that need and the larger context in which it's happening. What we're going to do in the entire project is on the left side, we're going to look at the need that they're going to focus on. We're going to understand what drives that need in subsistence context. What are the causes of that need? And finally we're going to understand the larger context elements. Which actually calls the drivers and calls the need at one sense. So one way to think about it is, why is the need happening, those other drivers, and then why are those drivers there? That's the larger context. On the right side of the slide, you'll see that you're going to be designing the core and augmented solution, the innermost circle. You also have to think about the ecosystem that you put around the core and augmented solution. And then you're going to be thinking about the business plan as well. Now, why is this important? Because in subsistence context, people are deprived on multiple fronts. So it's not just enough to focus on the product alone. You have to think about how to augment the product, maybe with education. And you have to think about the ecosystem. Maybe it's educational classes. Maybe it's a network of farmers, and so on. You can't just think about the product and assume that everything else will fall into place. So in terms of the need, the drivers, and the context. As I mentioned earlier, the drivers are the causes of the need, and the context is the larger backdrop where the drivers and the need occur. So let's take an example. Here is an example of the need for protection from parasite carrying mosquitoes. This is the need that's focused on in this particular example. This is a huge cost, it's a huge human cost, and an economic cost because of malaria in the African continent. What are the drivers of this need? In other words, what causes this need to be so stark? Well, it's the inability to take preventive measures. It's how affordable the treatment is. It's lack of access to healthcare. And it's a poor public health infrastructure. So all of these are drivers. Now you may think, well what exactly is a driver? Anything that causes the need is a driver, and what we are saying is as long as it's closely related to the need, you can call it a driver. On the other hand, if it's a little bit more distant from the need, we want to call it a context element. So what is the larger context? What are the elements of the context? Well, the climatic conditions in Africa. This is more at a macro level. The lack of resources in a number of countries as well. The lack of access to hospitals is another issue. The lack of infrastructure in terms of water, electricity, sanitation, and so on, so these are all aspects of the larger context elements. So, I hope you understand what we mean by a need, its drivers, and its context. Now it's important just to keep in mind that you can decide what a driver is and what a context is, as long as the context is the larger backdrop and the driver is more immediate to the need. So you don't have to really wrestle with whether something is a driver or a context. As long as you decide where it falls, and as long as you decide that something belongs in the larger backdrop, and something is a more immediate cause of a particular need. In order to understand the need, the drivers and the context, we have developed an exercise for you. What we'd like you to do is use that exercise to identify the need that you will be focusing on in your project. So what we'd like you to do is go through the virtual immersion. List needs that you find interesting on a sheet of paper. And then consider the needs and identify the top three needs you would like to focus on for your project topic. For the chosen need, you need to describe it in terms of geography, demographics and usage situations. You need to list the driveres of the need, in other words, the immediate causes. You need to list the larger context elements. And you need to draw all of this out in concentric circles with labels. The very act of drawing out what you have in your mind in the form of a big picture is very important for you to see what your thinking is really about. So what is this project? Well, it involves identifying the problem Identifying the opportunity. Designing a solution. Designing an enterprise plan, meaning it could be a business, it could be a social enterprise, and considering the sustainable outcomes. So let me go through each step of the project. In terms of the topic for the project, it's important to choose something that could be of social or commercial focus. It does not matter if what you have in mind, as an NGO, as a social enterprise with some kind of revenue or as a business. It's important to avoid large infrastructure projects like hospitals but think of small products that could bought by an end user. It's important to have some kind of revenues, so that you can be economically sustainable. That is a good exercise to try to trade off the different types of sustainability and to force you to come up with some way to make your solution economically sustainable. It could be a good or a service for any geographic location. And it's logical for you to pick your local community in order to design the solution. Their solution has to be realistic. So make reasonable assumptions of a workable solution and enterprise plan. The solution consists of the core solution, the augmented solution, the ecosystem, and the comparison with alternatives. It's not enough to just design the solution. It's important to show that it's better than what we currently have in terms of alternatives. We talked about the need, the drivers, and the context elements. All of that comprises the problem. Now let's go to the opportunity. The opportunity can be descirbed in terms of the geography, the beneficiary or customer, and the usage situation. For the example that we are using to illustrate the project, the geography is the entire continent of Africa. The beneficiaries are the poorest in Africa who face the highest risk of malaria. And the usage situation could be during sleep at night or for infants and children through the day and the night. In terms of the core soltuion, what we have is durable, low-cost, organic insecticide treated anti-malarial bed nets. They are effective in reducing deaths in children. They're durable, they're eco-friendly made of recyclable organic materials, and they are safe in eliminating health hazards. They offer effective and long term protection against parasite carrying mosquitoes. In terms of the augmented solution the packaging will emphasis education about malaria. In terms of the ecosystem, there will be educational programs and schools and for women's groups. Our solution can be compared to DDT which is less effective as mosquitoes develop resistance and also has an adverse impact on humans in the environment. Similarly, low cost drugs are less effective as mosquitoes develop resistance. Modern drugs are effective in the short run, but they're not affordable, and they're not accessible at the village level. Ordinary bed nets are ineffective since they are not treated with insecticides, and they are not durable either. So it's important to show that our solution is better than current solutions in a number of different ways. Now we look at the enterprise plan. And the enterprise plan consists of three parts. A sustainable value proposition, communicating the value proposition, and delivering the value proposition. So what is the value proposition? By value proposition, we mean, what is the beneficiary giving up, and what are they getting in return. The value proposition here is an affordable mosquito net that's treated at a price of $3.5. It's cheaper than most comparable products in the market. It's durable and lasting 4 years without having to be re-treated. It's effective in reducing deaths in children by a 20%. And it's accessible in that it's available at the village level through various channels. It is also safe and not having adverse effects on humans or the environment. How do we communicate the value proposition? This is going to be done through community radio and street place to develop awareness and to train users of the product. How we going to deliver the value preposition? This is going to be done through community health workers, local entrepreneurs, and weekly village markets. We will set up distributed community level production centers, and build relationships with local suppliers of raw materials. In addition, we'll set up community level production centers in 30 villages. We'll establish relationships with existing transportation partners in these locations. Built partnerships with grass roots NGOs and government agencies and hire and train local personal to manage the expansion process. The final part of the project are the sustainable outcomes, in terms of the social, the environmental and the economic. In terms of social impact, there are reduced rates of disease through better quality of life, higher household income, economic development for the region, and employment creation in the economically backwards regions of Nigeria, Congo, and Zimbabwe. In terms of environmental impact, the product is made out of recyclable materials, insecticide is made out of organic extracts. There are no adverse effects on humans or the environment, and the product as a result is ecologically sustainable. Finally, in terms of economic impact, we are going to make a good return on investment and gain market share and what we learn here could be used in other contexts as well. So to summarize, your project is going to be about understanding subsistence marketplaces through identifying a need to focus on, identifying the drivers of the need and the larger context elements. And in turn you're going to design a solution that involves a core and an augmented aspect. You're going to design an ecosystem and you're going to put together a business plan.