In this podcast, I will introduce the use of qualitative research methods in quality improvements in health care. One use of qualitative research methods in quality improvement in health care is to drive improvement in the sense that qualitative data can help us make initiatives more successful. This could be as part of the day-to-day running of the health care system. For example, through patient complaints on evaluation of an improvement initiative. In addition, qualitative data can be used in evaluations of quality improvement initiatives. As illustrated by the work of Mary Dixon-Woods in 2009, explaining Michigan developing an ex-post theory of quality improvement programs. Please refer to the reading following this podcast. Qualitative methods can be instrumental in research on quality improvement. For example, by helping us to assess how quality improvement methods work, also, by helping us understand what methods work well under the circumstances and for whom. Examples of qualitative research methods include observation studies, interviews, and focus groups. One example of the key role of qualitative research is in quality improvement as defined by Pope, Van Royen, and Baker in 2002. To illustrate this, I will discuss some of the advantages of qualitative research in quality improvement. Firstly, validity. That is, we can gain an insight into the lived experiences of people from their own narratives. Secondly, context. For example, the researcher is enabled to understand the specific circumstances, and nuances, and lived experiences of the individual or the community. To illustrate this, Pope, Van Royen, and Baker in 2002, highlighted a focus group study which aimed to obtain information directly from adolescent young women on their knowledge and expectations concerning contraceptive use and their attitude to health care. The study found that knowledge of the daily use and side effects of contraceptives was insufficient. More importantly, mothers and the peer group were important in the teenagers' decision-making and should be considered when communicating with adolescent young women. Please refer to the reading following the podcast for further information. Thirdly, rich data. For example, the World Health Organization identified a Cochrane Review in 2019, which looked at what drives women to use antenatal care. The review compliments existing effectiveness reviews of antenatal care provision and adds essential insights as to why a particular type of antenatal care provided in specific local context may or may not be acceptable, accessible, or valued by some pregnant women and their families or communities. For further information, please refer to the reading following this podcast. However, Pope, Van Royen, and Baker in 2002, identified some challenges of using qualitative research in quality improvement, which includes reliability. That is, the individuals lived experiences unique to them and therefore will not be generalizable. There may be difficulty in interpreting the data, the information may be complex. Pope, Van Royen, and Baker in 2002, identified three examples of how qualitative research methods can be used to inform quality improvement in health care. Firstly, there's the silent/non-obvious characteristics that is qualitative research methods enable us to draw out issues which may not be explicit to the researcher. Secondly, there's the organizational context. For example, eliciting barriers to change such as the culture of the organization. Thirdly, there's mixed-methods package, for example, PDSA, action research or patient feedback on success of improvement. In summary, in this podcast, we provided a brief introduction to qualitative research methods and their use in quality improvement and highlighted some of the advantages of using qualitative research methods in quality improvement. Using research, we illustrated how qualitative research methods can be used to drive quality improvement and to gain a deeper understanding of the lived experience of the individual. You will gain a deeper understanding of qualitative research methods and the need for mixed methodological approaches to quality improvement as we move forward.