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I want to illustrate the method of using decomposition by function to help you in

Â exploration. I want to do it by using the ice cream

Â scoop example and you may recall from the problem definition video that we came up

Â with the problem statement. In what way might we create a better

Â handheld tool for forming balls of ice cream from a bulk container?

Â Now, decomposition by function is facilitated by the creation of what I call

Â a function diagram. And a function diagram is basically a flow

Â chart that describes what it is that the artifact has to do and can be thought of

Â as functions involving the flow of materials, energy, and signal.

Â And so, let me just illustrate with the ice cream scoop.

Â I think the, the flow of material is the most straightforward.

Â So, let's imagine we have, the bulk container, which has the ice cream.

Â 3:33

All right, so, let me first emphasize that function diagrams are not unique.

Â That is, there are many possible ways of decomposing what it is an artifact does by

Â function. This is a reasonable way to do it, I think

Â it's very useful to think for most artifacts to think about the flow of

Â material, the flow of energy or force, and the flow of signal.

Â And that lets you think about, what are the elements, the fundamental elements of

Â function that, that device performs? Now, this is a very simple artifact, an

Â ice cream scoop, but even for a very simple artifact, it is possible to

Â decompose or break down what it is that artifact does into smaller pieces.

Â The next step in using a function diagram, so this thing we call a function diagram.

Â 4:35

And the, the next step in use, actually using the function diagram for exploration

Â is to pick typically at most two or three of these functions to use as a way to

Â focus your exploration effort. And as I look at this, I think that the.

Â really the obvious ones are clearly the way in which the scoop divides from bulk

Â is gonna be critical. It's gonna be critical to think about the

Â application of human power. And maybe there's some interesting things

Â that could be done as a result of focusing on the forming of the bowl.

Â But, I think for, for now, I'm gonna focus on these two The application of human

Â power, and the dividing of a portion of ice cream from bulk.

Â Alright, so let me show you how that works.

Â So, We're going to divide our design problem

Â into just two pieces and the pieces are going to be divide from bulk and apply

Â human power. And remember the key idea in decomposition

Â is we're going to focus single-mindedly on that subproblem and not necessarily in the

Â context of the, of the overall design problem we're trying to solve.

Â So, for instance, let me just give some examples for how we might do the out, how

Â we might consider, the, how we might use that decomposition by focusing on applying

Â human power. So some ways that you might apply human

Â power. You might imagine twisting, you might

Â imagine, squeezing. You might imagine hammering or impacting.

Â So let's just draw a little hammer here. You might imagine, I don't know pushing.

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Stepping on something? We might imagine.

Â And I guess it's a version of squeezing but I'm thinking about like the shears

Â that are used in cutting branches that look like something like that.

Â And that's kind of a, a squeeze as well. Alright now see what we just did there we

Â generated a bunch of ideas. For how it is that human power can be

Â applied. None of these in the context of ice cream

Â scoops, but just generally how is it that human power is applied.

Â And, and, you know, to illustrate that it, see it, it can be, it really should be

Â outside of the context of ice cream scoops you can even imagine you know, pedaling,

Â right, might be an application of, of human power.

Â So those are all the ways you might apply human power.

Â Many of the ways you might apply human power.

Â Okay, so now lets do the same thing over dividing from bulk.

Â What are ways that things are divided from bulk?

Â I don't know, you might imagine a bulk sheet of material.

Â And imagine that it's perforated and you, so, I'm going to call that pre-divided.

Â 12:23

Okay. So.

Â So, that, that, so basically, we d-, we divided, we decomposed by function.

Â We've picked two function, and then we generate two functions and then we

Â generated some solutions to subproblems that are independent of the particular

Â ice-cream scoop problem. Alright.

Â Now's the fun part which is, we pick one from column A, one from column B, and we

Â see if we can create an ice-cream scoop that integrates those two principles.

Â So, let me take let's take. This guy, punch and twist.

Â See what we could do. So we're gonna do a, a punch, a punch and

Â twist. So imagine you had a scoop.

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It's got a, it's a cylindrical section that is like a cookie cutter or like a,

Â That can punch out and so the way you'd use this is you'd press, you'd press this

Â cylindrical cutter down into the ice cream.

Â And then you put your thumb right there and you'd use it to twist the cutter to

Â form a cylindrical plug of ice cream. Alright, so everyone see what we just did

Â there? We took the idea of pushing to cut, punch

Â to cut, and twisting to cut. Integrated into the solution, that's the

Â idea of a, cut into a cylindrical plug and then twisting it to, to cut.

Â Alright? how about, one of the things that's kind of frustrating about ice cream

Â is getting leverage on the ice cream itself.

Â So I like the idea of, if we go back here, I'm intrigued by this idea of squeezing

Â and I wonder if there's a, like a squeeze and a scoop that we could do.

Â We should have just a scoop here, right? A squeeze in a scoop that has, so could,

Â could there be an ice cream scoop that has, let me think how this would work.

Â 16:38

It's a pincer scooper. So, this leverages the idea of using

Â opposing force of squeezing pincers instead of requiring the wrist of the user

Â to, to, to resist the action of the, of the scooping.

Â I'm also intrigued by, here's another one that I'm intrigued by,

Â I wonder if there's more of a pulling action that we could use so you could

Â imagine the users, the user grabbing this thing and pulling and if we could some how

Â get the cutter, the pulling feature part of this thing.

Â So this is going to be pull to fuh, to form a curl of ice cream.

Â Then that also would have this nice quality of all the forces lining up so

Â that it doesn't, hurt the wrist. All right.

Â And let's see if there's another one here. I wonder if there's a way to kind of do

Â the excavator thing. I'm thinking.

Â So, a push approach. And let's imagine we have a ball-shaped

Â cutter and I wonder if there's a way to create a little mechanism such that the,

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This piece here to rotate under, kinda like an excavator when you push down on

Â the top. And, and I'll give some thought to, how to

Â do that. It's, it's, that, just thinking that

Â through probably would take ten or fifteen minutes to think about how to do that.

Â But that's an example of combing the notion of the excavator head with the

Â notion of pushing. In order to get the, get this to work.

Â So now I've taken some time to think about some of those and I've articulated four of

Â them as little more nicely done sketches. So this is an example of the end product

Â of that kind of process. So to illustrate, the push shovel.

Â If, if you, if you can sup, if you can get a little sliding mechanism here, such that

Â when I push down on this thing, The scoop first makes contact with the ice

Â cream. But then as you push further, it forces,

Â through this little connection here, it forces a rotation of the scooper in order

Â to create, cut a scoop. Through a pushing action, which seems like

Â it might be a lot better than what normally happens with the rest.

Â Now, let me just point out this one here. This idea actually didn't come from the

Â functional decomposition. It came from thinking about kind of one of

Â the pin points, keeps the wrist torque that's applied when you scoop.

Â The wrist brace idea is simply you have that brace come up over the wrist to take

Â relieve the torque on the user. This is a, is a resolution and I thought

Â about how to draw it a little more clearly of the punch and twist idea.

Â The idea is you push, the sharp cutter, punches a cylinder, but then you use your

Â thumb here to rotate that cylinder, and it has kind of a diagonal opening to it so

Â that, that edge cuts the, cuts a plug, as, as you, as you rotate it.

Â And then this is a resolution or a little nicer illustration of how that claw polar

Â cutter might, might work. And then one additional ideal, on the pull

Â and scrape is that, you might even be able to make it so it had a little hinge or

Â something, so, you may could even use it in, in two modes. You could use in kind of

Â conventional scoop mode, and you could rotate it down, so you could pull, and,

Â scrape, with the scraping action more in line with where it is you're pulling, with

Â your hand. All right?

Â So that's, those are illustrations of how it is that you take a functional

Â decomposition, use it to get some insights for what the elements of the design might

Â be, and then combine them in order to create integrated solutions.

Â